A small business - what's that?

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significant percentage of Russian bizns presented in such categories as small private enterprise.This, according to many experts, a typical status for the type of innovative firms, for beginners SP.There are also such category, as the average company.What is the difference?A small business - is how many people?What preferences can give that status in terms of possible measures of state support?Consider these and related nuances typical for businesses in the status of SMEs.

Criteria for SMEs

Under Russian law, the small and medium-sized enterprises - these are two different classes of business, membership of which is determined by a number of criteria.Consider those that are typical for the companies of the first and second type.Let's start with a typical small business.

What is the organization of small businesses?In accordance with the law, these include companies, which employ less than 100 people.Maximum annual revenues of such companies may not exceed 400 million rubles.Also, the proportion of owners (legal entities, which themselves are not small companies) may not exceed 25%.

Some experts also point out that small and medium enterprises - this is not an exhaustive classification of private companies, for which the typical small scale.There are other categories of organizations.Such as, for example, micro-enterprises.These include businesses which employ less than 15 employees.

We see that in the category of SMEs may include businesses that do not seem to be "small".Nevertheless turnover close to 400 million rubles - a serious indicator of the scale of the firm.

criteria for medium-sized enterprises

consider what are the criteria for medium-sized enterprises.Their little.Regarding staffing levels, the standard prescribed in the law, as follows: from 101 to 250 employees.According to the annual revenue - from 401 million to 1 billion rubles.The difference with the small business category, we see significant.

plays a role, what kind of activities carried out in the organization?No.Law in this sense does not contain any dividing rules.Small and medium-sized enterprises - a company that can deal with exactly the same activities, but belong to different classes of organizations only because of the revenue and the value of staff.Similarly considered ownership.Ltd. - a small enterprise, IP - the same.Joint-stock company - the same way.The same rule applies to medium sized businesses.

criteria for SMEs: explanation

We have considered the criteria characterizing categories such as medium and small enterprise.It will be useful to know some features of their correct definitions.

If we talk about the size of the state - means the average number of employees during the calendar year that precedes the moment research firm for classification in one category or another.Written in the law of numbers are considered borderline values, inclusive.

Under the revenue meant income from the sale of goods, works or services without VAT.In addition, these may be added to the assets of the company, taking into account the carrying amount for the calendar year preceding the survey.

new business as SMEs

But how to relate business to one category or another, if we study the newly established organization?A small company, the criteria of which are named above, can not be applied due to the lack of statistical evidence.As well as those established for the average.In these cases, the following norm.If an organization established only that, it can be classified as small or medium if the figures reflect the average number of employees, revenue (or it combined with a carrying value) for the period from the date when information about the company were made to the registry, does notThey exceeded those limits.That is, if the firm was founded in January, and until August of its turnover did not exceed 400 million, and the number of employees - 100 people, it is - a small business.The criteria are known.

Nuances counting frames

Another important caveat regarding calculation of the number of employees.Are not only important contracts executed in accordance with the Labour Code (ie, employment record), but also civil-legal agreements, as well as job-sharing.That is the concept of "State" in this case is not linked to the registration of the legal aspects of the employment relationship between the company and employees.The main thing is that the work is carried out legally, and in what specific format - for TC or in civil-law agreements, the legislator does not matter.

By the way, the law is the norm, according to which contracts are subcontracted be equated with full employment agreements.For example, if a person works as a contractor for the civil contract, but every day goes to the office of the customer as to itself to work, in compliance with the schedule and agree on, for example, the yield on vacation with the leadership of the organization, the Rostrudnadzor may oblige the company to sign witha full-fledged partner of the employment contract by the TC.

Why my company the status of SMEs?

We have defined criteria by which the company can apply to the category of small or medium enterprise.Those parameters in question are defined at the legislative level.That is likely that the companies belonging to this or that category is important from the point of view of some prospects.Strictly speaking, what is the practical use of the fact that the company has the status of "small business"?This provides some benefits?Yes it is.

fact that in Russia there are a number of federal and regional and municipal programs aimed at supporting businesses, which form a small business - a defining criterion.There is a whole area of ​​the state policy in this area.About what kind of support measures can we talk?

Types of SME support

state policy involves a number of benefits, if the business is conducted in such a format, as a small business.That such measures as the:

  • preferential tax regimes (we'll look at what it is);
  • simplified standards regarding tax and accounting, statistical reporting type;
  • benefits relating to payment procedures in the field of privatized property;
  • allocating the special role of small businesses in the field of public procurement;
  • help in protecting the rights and interests of entrepreneurs in cooperation with the supervisory authorities;
  • financial support to businesses;
  • help businesses in the development of infrastructure;
  • different kind of measures to simplify the management of the firm's business categories of SMEs.

Who will be supported?

Appropriate business support programs may vary by region (as well as between different municipalities and towns).Much depends on the industry-specific business.In some regions of the federation higher priority is given to companies engaged in mining, in other - steel companies.In a number of Russian cities have the funds whose activities are focused on the support of the companies involved in a typical innovative activities.In such organizations may find support founders of "start-ups", the main business idea which is usually the creation of a completely new market niches based on not yet mastered by anyone technologies.

In practice, assistance to enterprises classified as small and medium can have both state and municipal governments, and various kinds of organizations and foundations, which assigned this role.For example, if a business - small innovative enterprise, it can be a factor in the success of attracting venture capital investment funds with the assistance of a predominantly state-owned.

main problems in the field of small and medium business

Actually, the reasons why businesses need government support?Really successful, albeit small enterprise - an organization implies some kind of activity on subsidies?What are the major problems that are typical of SMEs in Russia?

Experts believe that among the most typical difficulties - the high tax burden.In addition, the business does not have enough financial resources.The first problem, in practice, is expressed mainly in the need to pay large contributions to state funds - FIU, the FSS for HIF staff.As regards the second award of complexity - it is a low availability of cheap credit.Those rates, which are set by the majority of Russian banks of reach for many entrepreneurs.

Another difficulty for the Russian businessmen - low availability of land resources and real estate.Many entrepreneurs find out how the experts have problems with access to energy infrastructure.Connect to the network is difficult, rates - high.Another problem of private businesses, experts say - the shortage of personnel.

role of the state in solving business problems

State institutions, according to experts, in general, should be interested in the fact that small business is developing in Russia.And because different kinds of support programs for SMEs must take into account the need to address the pressing issues in question.In some areas of activity, analysts say, the results are there.

Preferential taxation

First of all, it concerns the very tax burden.In particular, enterprises, SMEs can take advantage of preferential tax systems - STS UTII or patents.Each of these modes in most cases ensures a much smaller amount of deductions to the treasury, when compared to the numbers from the general system.Moreover, certain categories of individual entrepreneurs may reduce the amount of taxes paid contributions to the Pension Fund, and HIF FSS.In this case, many SP corresponding load is reduced to a minimum.By the way, here you can say about indulgences on tax and accounting.All are required to take in FNS, many SP - is the annual declaration.Requirements for conducting complex accounting documents to them the legislator does not show.

Loans and grants

with credit, of course, more complicated.Even those banks in which the state holds the dominant share in the shares, offer loans at conditions far from desired.Many businesses are forced to borrow abroad, forming a large external corporate debt.Program loans from budgetary resources, according to experts, developed in Russia is rather weak.

there are some mechanisms of financial support businesses by state and municipal grants.However, to say that they work in a systematic way, it is premature, analysts say.Moreover, the amounts that appear in the relevant support programs, experts say, could hardly help businesses to achieve significant results.


aspect, however, is considered by many analysts have businesses in Russia have no possibility to attract financing from banks and from investors.The criterion in this case is quite simple: the main thing that a business idea is consistent with the ambitions of the entrepreneur and profitable.All that is needed investor - this margin is higher than the average bank interest.That there was a sense to invest in a business, and not to transfer cash on deposit.If you venture investor decides that a particular small innovative enterprise - is an example of the combination of reasonable business ideas and thought-out plan for its implementation, then be happy to invest their money in it.In those circumstances, which will probably not be able to offer not one commercial bank.A small company - it is attractive to many investors facility investments.

SMEs and human aspect

personnel problems between the government and decided, though sufficiently indirectly.This is the promotion of training programs for technicians in universities, the development of vocational and technical education.All of these activities are largely dependent on the quality of public policy.

However, some experts believe, is also the business itself should make efforts to improve the overall climate in the enterprise environment.Take the same personnel problem: many companies, analysts say, increase the volume of production, but it does not form a new vacancy rates.New jobs are not there, particularly those that require the involvement of qualified specialists.Largely for this reason that students do not choose the profession manufacturing, believing that the work they are not guaranteed.In addition, experts say, not all companies pay attention to the problem of increasing productivity.