Shrubs firmly gained its niche in the plant world.Encountering them at every step (in the forests, orchards, gardens, parks and on the streets), we sometimes do not attach any importance to them.And it is in vain: knowing what are the bushes, you can create a stunning garden composition that will please the eye, not only in spring and summer and late autumn.
Shrubs: One of the life forms of plants
Life form, in other words, the biological - a phenotype, the appearance of the plant, which reflects the degree of adaptation to the environment.The most complete classification of the life forms believe authored by IG Serebryakov, according to which release:
- woody plants (trees, shrubs, bushes);
- poludrevesnye plants (shrubs and shrubs);
- ground herbs;
- aquatic grass.
This division of all existing plants is based on the degree of lignification of the ground.Growth branches from shrubs starting from the bottom, and with age has hardly differs main trunk.The trees also outlines crown are very clear and you can see the entire structure of the plant, pronounced the main escape.Thus, the structure of the aerial part - is what is fundamentally different from each other trees and shrubs.There are also bushes and shrubs.The reason for their selection as a separate group is the low height (0.5 m) and a weak degree of lignification of the shoots, respectively.
Classification - this is a direct answer to the question of what are shrubs.The division into groups may be carried out according to different principles, consider the most common:
Classification shrub height
This division can sometimes wear a relative.Growth affects fertilization, soil composition, climate conditions and the use of bio-stimulants.Depending on how big reach shrubs in nature, they can be divided into three groups:
- low bushes, the maximum height of which does not exceed one meter, for them, for example, include Spiraea japonica, Juniperus Sabina (pictured);
- average shrub height of 1-2.5 meters, for example, currants, Berberis vulgaris;
- tall shrubs (more than 2.5 meters in height): Sambucus racemosa, lilac, hawthorn Siberia.
What are shrubs, depending on the growth rate
Given how quickly grow certain kinds of shrubs, they can be divided into five major groups:
- very rapidly growing species (eg, yellow acacia, which grows to 3meters in 2-3 years, forming dense thickets, mock orange, tamarisk);
- fast-growing shrubs, such as viburnum common, hazel, honeysuckle, Loch silver;
- moderate growth of shrubs (lilacs, cherry, japonica);
- slow-growing shrubs, these include Juniperus Sabina, privet, sea buckthorn;
- very slow-growing, usually a dwarf form of deciduous and coniferous trees.
classification depending on the length of plant life
Lifespan entire plant should be distinguished from that concerning the individual shoots.For example, raspberry can grow in the area up to 50 years.But it shoots live for only two years.There are four groups of shrubs:
- short-lived (maximum age - 25 years): elder, mock orange, spirea, etc .;
- average longevity (25 years to 30), for example, broom and currants;
- durable species can be between 50 and 100 years old, for example, japonica, Viburnum pine, lilac (pictured);
- very durable have a life expectancy of more than 100 years, these include: arborvitae, juniper (age specific instances reaches four hundred years).
Classification based on frost
This information often interested gardeners, especially in those areas where, as a rule, fairly severe winters, but indulge in unusual plants like.That is where the question arises, what are the shrubs and grasses, suitable for harsh climatic conditions.The factor of resistance to cold is necessary to take into account, as this will save you from buying the wrong, unnecessary expenditure and frustration.All shrubs are divided into 5 groups:
- very hardy - a plant that can withstand winter, lowering the temperature to -40 degrees, and sometimes more, it does not bring them any harm;mainly group consists of coniferous shrubs (mountain pine, cedar elfin), but there are also representatives of hardwood, for example, hawthorn and dogwood Siberia;
- hardy, they tolerate cold winters, but not too severe frosts sheltered snow shoots freeze (haw, viburnum, honeysuckle);
- relatively heat-loving - a plant with a long growing season, shoots often do not have time to odrevesnet and therefore easily damaged by spring frosts and prolonged severe winter cold snaps, for example, the genus Euonymus shrubs, spirea, privet;
- thermophilic, such plants during prolonged cold snap aerial part can be lost completely, so they require additional shelter;
- very heat-loving shrubs, they do not tolerate cold weather below -10 degrees.
What types of shrubs, depending on the demands for coverage?
lighting - is another factor of successful development of the plant.The wrong place can destroy him.Therefore, it is important to take into account the lighting in the greening of their land.Although we must remember that in many cases, light-loving - changeable characteristic.As a rule, young plants require shade because of the risk of burns, and growing, they are perfectly grow even under the brightest rays.
Let's see what are the bushes, depending on the demands to sunlight:
- light-loving, they absolutely can not tolerate prolonged shading and prefer to grow in open spaces, for example, rose, spiraea, mountain ash;
- relatively shade-tolerant shrubs: honeysuckle, hydrangea paniculata (pictured), the yellow acacia;
- shade-tolerant shrubs tolerate shade, but lit area grow still better, they are warty euonymus, privet, hazel.
Decorative and deciduous shrubs
Landscape designers in their work actively use not only flowers and trees, but also shrubs.Because they can be used to create lightweight composition, volume hedges, green figures or just create color contrasts, so many different kinds of beautiful color it is.Many amateur gardeners are aware of what are the bushes (name, grade) with decorative leaves, and well it is used in practice.Choosing them for yourself, keep in mind that there are deciduous and evergreen species.The last - this is basically a miniature, dwarf conifers form.For deciduous species is a huge number of shrubs.It is important to remember that all of them are quite heat-loving, light-requiring and demanding on soil fertility, so within the territory of Central Russia require careful care and shelter for the winter.The brightest representatives:
- Japanese maple - under this name combines a genus of perennial woody plants.In late autumn, dense foliage painted in all shades of red and burgundy colors.Great example of what are shrubs (photo below), a beautiful and how to use them to autumn garden acquires brightness and appeal.
- barberry.Many varieties are not only decorative, but also fruit, berries are used for compotes, and pickles, as well as a condiment.Forms and types are numerous enough, everyone will pick up on your taste: Ottawa barberry leaves with purple or Berberis thunbergii, which in the autumn colored in shades of orange and others.
- Aralia.Enough heat-loving shrub with straight, very large, feathery leaves.
- addition, undeservedly forgotten Fieldfare, Oregon Grape, elderberry.
At the mention of these plants, the first thing that comes to mind - a magnificent shrub roses, ornamental shrub, species of which are very popular.Another frequent and well-known Russian guest gardens - chubushnik, somehow secured for itself the name of Jasmine, which is completely wrong, as these plants even belong to different genera (hydrangeaceae and Oleaceae respectively).Mock oranges, there are about 60 species, the most popular representatives - it is Caucasian and Schrenk.Those who want to have a fragrant and unusual garden, also pay attention to the forsythia, viburnum, spirea, lilacs, cinquefoil, rhododendrons, buddlei, Deutz, tree peonies (pictured).
Berry Bushes have great economic importance.Rarely a garden in our country is complete without a currant or raspberry and its closest relatives - blackberries.Selection of progress in this regard, far ahead, derived many varieties and varieties, differing in size of the bush, the color of berries, ripening speed.Fragrant currants provides not only berries, but leaves that are brewed as a tea or used in cooking.It should also try to plant Japanese quince, chokeberry, hawthorn, irgu, cranberry, elderberry (pictured), honeysuckle and buckthorn.
Of course, the nature of the care depends on the destination.So, berry bushes require more attention, they are often subjected to various pests and diseases.But your time is worth it, because in the end you get the valuable vitamins and minerals in the natural "packaging" grown personally.
choosing plants for your garden, it is important to know what are shrubs (name, grade, species).It definitely helps to make the right choice, competent to define the place of landing and achieve positive results in growing.