there in the history of the Russian state for another year, which can be called revolutionary.When the crisis situation in the country escalated to the limit, and Mikhail Gorbachev could no longer influence even on his inner circle, and it made every effort to resolve the situation in the country by force, and the people themselves who chose to give their sympathy, there was a putsch 1991.
Many leaders of the CPSU, which remained committed to conservative management, aware that the development of the restructuring gradually led to the loss of their power, but they are still strong enough to prevent the market reform of the Russian economy.In this way they tried to prevent the economic crisis.
Nevertheless, these leaders were not so authoritative methods of persuasion to hinder the democratic movement.Therefore, the only way out of this situation, which to them seemed the most likely - a state of emergency.Nobody did not expect that, in connection with these events begin 1991 coup.
ambiguous position of Mikhail Gorbachev, or removal from the leadership
Some conservative leaders have even tried to put pressure on Mikhail Gorbachev, who had to maneuver between the old leadership and the representatives of the democratic forces, who were in his immediate environment.It Yakovlev and Shevardnadze.This unstable position Mikhail Gorbachev led to the fact that it has been gradually losing the support of both parties.And soon the press began to enter information about the upcoming putsch.
From April to July, Mikhail Gorbachev was preparing an agreement, called "Novo-Ogarevo," by which was going to prevent the collapse of the Soviet Union.He intended to transfer the bulk of the powers of the Federal Republic.July 29 a meeting with Gorbachev Nursultan Nazarbayev and Boris Yeltsin.It discussed in detail the main part of the agreement, as well as the imminent displacement from their posts many conservative leaders.And it became known to the KGB.Thus, the event is getting closer to that period, which in the history of the Russian state became known as "the August 1991 coup."
conspirators and their demands
course, Party leaders were concerned about the decision of Mikhail Sergeyevich.And during his vacation has decided to exploit the situation with the use of force.In a kind of conspiracy attended by many celebrities.It Vladimir Kryuchkov, who at that time was the chairman of the KGB, Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev, Dmitry Yazov, Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov, Boris Pugo, and many others, who organized the 1991 coup.
putsch August 18 sent to Mikhail Sergeyevich, who was on vacation in the Crimea, a group representing the interests of the conspirators.And they presented him with their demands: to declare the state of emergency.But when Mikhail Gorbachev refused, his residence was surrounded and cut off all forms of communication.
interim government, or expectations are not met
early morning of August 19 in the capital of Russia was introduced about 800 armored vehicles, accompanied by an army of four thousand people.In all the media, it was announced that created the State Emergency Committee, and that it took over all powers to govern the country.On this day, people are waking up, turn on their TVs, can only see endless coverage of the famous ballet called "Swan Lake."It was morning when the August 1991 coup.
People responsible for the plot, argued that Mikhail Gorbachev was seriously ill and temporarily unable to run the state, and therefore its powers passed to Yanayev, who was vice-president.They hoped that the people are tired of the restructuring will be on the side of the new government, but they organized a press conference, where he spoke Gennady Yanayev, did not make the proper impression.
Yeltsin and his supporters
coup that began in 1991 has failed putsch organizers.People did not take their side.Many believed their actions illegal.Especially that on August 19 at the meeting, which was held near the White House, Yeltsin addressed the nation.He announced that the situation in the State and entailed coup-1991 - is a coup.
Photo Boris Yeltsin, made at the time of speaking in front of people, has been published in many newspapers, even in Western countries.The opinion of Boris Yeltsin was according to several officials who have fully supported his position.
Putsch 1991. Briefly about the events that took place August 20 in Moscow
huge number of Muscovites took to the streets August 20th.All they wanted to dissolve the Emergency Committee.The White House, where he was Boris Yeltsin and his supporters surrounded the defense (or, as they call it, resisting the coup).They built barricades and surrounded the building, not wanting to return the old order.
Among them, there were so many Muscovites, and virtually the entire color of the intelligentsia.Even the famous Mstislav Rostropovich specially flown in from the United States to support their countrymen.The putsch of August 1991, the causes of which - the reluctance of conservative leadership to voluntarily give up their power, rallied a great number of people.Most countries support those who defended the White House.And the events broadcast abroad leading broadcaster.
failure of the conspiracy, and the return of President
Demonstration of such mass disobedience coup has caused a decision to storm the building of the White House, they were assigned to three in the morning.This terrible event led to a more than one victim.But in general, the coup failed.The generals, soldiers, and even the majority of the fighters "Alpha" refused to shoot at citizens.The conspirators were arrested, and the President returned safely to the capital by canceling all orders completely Emergency Committee.Thus ended the August 1991 coup
But these days has changed dramatically, not only capital, but also the whole country.These events occurred a radical change in the history of many countries.The Soviet Union ceased to exist, and the political power of the state to regroup.As soon as the 1991 coup, has on August 22 in Moscow rallies were held again, representing the democratic movement of the country.They are people carrying the flag of the new tri-color national flag.Boris asked the relatives of all those who died during the siege of the White House pardon, as it failed to prevent these tragic events.But on the whole it remained festive atmosphere.
reasons for the failure of the coup, and the final collapse of the communist government
finished the 1991 coup.The reasons that led to its failure, are obvious enough.First of all, most people living in the Russian state, no longer wanted to go back in the time of stagnation.Very much was expressed distrust of the Communist Party.Other causes - a half-hearted actions of the conspirators themselves.On the contrary, quite aggressive from the democratic forces, which represented Boris Yeltsin, has received support not only from numerous mass of the Russian people, but also in Western countries.
1991 coup was not only tragic consequences, but also brought the country major changes.He made it impossible to maintain the Soviet Union, and to prevent further spread of the power of the CPSU.Thanks to Boris Nikolayevich signed a decree to suspend its operations after some time had been dissolved all the Komsomol and Communist organizations throughout the state.On November 6, the next decree finally banned the Communist Party.
tragic consequences of the August coup plotters
, or representatives of the Emergency Committee, as well as those who actively supported their position, were immediately arrested.Some of their number during the investigation suicide.1991 coup claimed several lives of ordinary citizens, who defended the building of the White House.These people were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.And their names forever in the history of the Russian state.It Dmitry Komar, Ilya Krichevsky and Vladimir Usov - representatives of Moscow youth, who stood in the way of moving armored vehicles.
events of that period ever have crossed the era of communist rule in the country.The collapse of the Soviet Union became obvious, and the main public masses fully supported the position of the democratic forces.Such has been the impact on the state coup occurred.August 1991 can safely assume that the moment which turned sharply history of the Russian state in an entirely different direction.It was during this period of dictatorship was stvergnuta masses, and the choice of the majority was on the side of democracy and freedom.Russia has entered a new period of development.