Marines - a special kind of troops.They must perform landing on unprepared areas of the coast, where no one is waiting.Factors that ensure victory, long list.This sudden, speed of delivery to the place of landing, stealth and ability to obtain powerful fire support.As a rule, the landing is carried out with the use of landing craft equipped with ramps, or by means of auxiliary craft.But Russian marines have hardware that does not have any other army in the world.The ships of the "Zubr" can not only make a landing, but also move on land, irrespective of the nature of the soil, leading with the fire and creating panic among the enemy.
Secret unprecedented speed and all-terrain consists in an original way of movement.Powerful propellers pose underneath the vessel overpressure, and it freezes at a predetermined height.The idea originated in the late twenties, the Soviet Levkova engineer who worked at the Novocherkassk Shipyard.They built a prototype, named after the author of the project "Levkov-1" (A-1), but, despite the obvious prospect, came "not to the court."In the middle and second half of the thirties the emphasis was more on the traditional means of combat, and the disputes were between the "horsemen" and "tank crews."Rate brilliant idea it was to no one.The work turned, and remembered them only in the 50s, when the Soviet intelligence learned of similar western development.
Design Bureau "Almaz" mandated the creation of special landing craft.Large-warships (battleships, cruisers) then cut into scrap metal, and the country's leadership in the face of Khrushchev liked unusual projects, revolutionary and fantastic.That was the first-born "Almaz" - "Slope" is a symbiosis of amphibians and boats left the dock and the early sixties.Before a platoon of Marines gave the ship to the landing point at the speed of an express train (90 km / h).A direct descendant of this miracle of technology was the "Zubr" hovercraft.
Alternative concepts landing
vehicle having a wheeled or tracked chassis, can be moved by land and overcome difficult obstacles, but the range of heights of obstacles is limited.There are armored hardware which may float, but their shipping quality is usually not correspond to the concept of "ship", they slow-moving and relatively helpless before the entrance to the beach.There warships, special purpose for the transport and landing, as part of which may be several armored vehicles and manpower.These boats also have flaws, they are vulnerable because of slow-moving, for the successful performance of combat missions they need the appropriate bank.Only 14% of the beaches are suitable for the landing of the MDC (the acronym is a small landing craft) dewatering type moored close and open up the ramp.
There is another concept developed in recent decades.This landing-horizon.Its essence lies in the fact that the main ship is far from the coast, and the delivery of armored vehicles carried out by special self-propelled small boats.It is ready for such a dropping helicopter class "Mistral".Planted this way you can, of course, only under the complete domination of land, air and water.What will happen with troops if the opponent has an effective means of countering (coastal defense systems, for example), you can easily imagine.He will serve as food for fish.
landing craft "Zubr" is fast, it does not stop at the shore, its firepower is in itself a threat to defenses.In general, it is almost an ideal means landing.It can cater for 78 per cent of the world's marine and coastal ocean.
housing construction in the world's most advanced means of sea landing based on the production and research base set up in CB "Diamond."In the late seventies the Soviet shipbuilders had the experience of construction of hovercraft ("squid", "Stingray" and other projects of amphibious ships).The most successful was the OHR "Adelia" (project number 12321).Its development was the next sequential code 12322 "Zubr".The main supporting structure of the body is in the form of rectangular pontoon (57,3 L x 25,6 W x 21,9 H, m), which is mounted on the superstructure, in turn, divided into three longitudinally oriented compartments.By functional purpose cargo is a central space on the sides of which there are energy nodes, places and personnel transported units, security systems, providing vital functions (including in the case of weapons of mass destruction).The rooms are equipped with the personnel and landing systems, air conditioning, ventilation, heating, noise, and they are insulated.There are conditions for ingestion.
body is made of welded technology, material - high-strength non-magnetic aluminum-magnesium alloy increased corrosion resistance.
idea layout belongs to the chief designer of the project Koronatova GD
Control actuators - not an easy task.Russian warships common types are driven by turbine engines, with the exception of submarines, which are loaded screws on the electric motors.To simplify control systems on a similar principle of organized power system MDK "Zubr".Hovercraft difficult to hold at a predetermined height above the surface, it requires a lot of energy.Develop its power of two, in the heart of each is stokilovattny gas turbine generator (they are also the two).The total capacity of the power plant type M35 produced NPK "Dawn - Mashproekt" is 50 thousand horsepower.Care commander CU-5 (electromechanical combat unit) are the main switchboard (MSB).Management is carried out remotely from the SERS (main command post), many of the operations are automated in order to improve ergonomics.In the scheme there is also a remote control.
Hold heavy ship (its displacement is 555 tons) at a given height it is also not easy, it is, after all, not a helicopter.Pneumopillows under the body creates four chetyrehlepestnyh injection screw diameter of 25000 mm, equipped with devices forced-control steps.Together with the electric motor of each discharge unit (ND-10).Horizontal movement is produced by glissernomu principle.Pushed landing craft air cushion "Zubr" three propeller with adjustable rotary blades with the possibility of reversing a diameter of 55,000 mm, mounted on a ring of polymer composite crop reduces noise.Through these propellers accelerated to a record of 90 km / h, and the change in the ratio of thrust each of them can effectively maneuver.
To charge air did not go around, and "worked" by holding ponderous vessel at a given clearance structurally provided guides.They are flexible enclosure taken along bunk scheme.Receiver flexible attachments are divided crosswise two keels, transverse and longitudinal.All this is not an easy system allows you to safely "relying" on the compressed air is such a machine, as the "Bison".Hovercraft rest or moves as long as the pressure balances its weight is lifted, if it is necessary to overcome the uneven terrain, and lowered to the ground when it is time to carry out the landing and unloading of military equipment.For him, no matter what the nature of the surface of the water or the land is, the range is wide enough excitement, and the ability to "creep" beyond the coastline distinguishes it from other more common and traditional landing craft.
landing craft air cushion "Zubr" in full its title modestly referred to as "small".He can deliver the desired point of the coastal zone "only" mechanized battalion of Marines in ten armored vehicles with their crews.In fact, the size and capacity of the OHR in a class of his peers do not.On landing possibilities it corresponds rather to the concept of "medium landing ship" (to large it still does not reach), if you take an analog of a conventional dewatering vessel approaching and opening ramp on the edge of the shore.As shown by the teachings of the "West-2009", actually planted with MDKVP "Zubr" can have the following options for military units:
- three T-80 (T-90) with a total weight of up to 150 tons;
- BMP 8 (115 tonnes);
- plus 10 BTR 140 Marines;
- Eight floating light tanks.
Landing is located in four crew spaces for 140 people each.Possible delivery option only manpower, not equipment, in this case, there are still 366 seats and the total number of servicemen planted increased to five hundred.This may be necessary if the need arose in the reinforcement, but autonomous navigation is reduced to a few hours.Marines - the same people, they need to eat and rest, and in the cargo hold of the conditions are not the most comfortable.
For direct landings are nasal gates, flip-down ramp and representing, rests on the ground.
landing craft "Zubr" - is not only a means of delivering personnel and equipment to the surly enemy shores, he can put the missile and artillery strikes to suppress possible resistance entrenched enemy, provide fire support, and to protect themselves from possible attacks of the enemyaircraft.Without the combat capabilities of the machine so perfect in the eyes of military experts would have remained just a "trough", even speed and maneuverability.
Here is a set of "tools" with which to provide the necessary firepower equipped with "Zubr".Hovercraft armed:
- Two missile launchers "Fire" A-22, firing unguided rockets caliber of 140.3 mm.
- Two automatic settings AK-630 caliber 30 mm ammunition in three thousand shells.
- Eight anti-missile complexes "Igla" (sometimes foreign operators using the US "Stinger").
On board there is a complex electronic warfare "slabbing", allowing the enemy to hinder the work of communication and detection.
addition, "Bison" can lay mines in ammunition of 20 pieces.The maximum installation time - 1 hour 20 minutes.
course before the cruiser that ship does not hold, but it should be borne in mind that in a modern war alone, he does not have to act, and naval and air, and if necessary - and tactical missile support will be given to him.
Landing ships, floating above the water surface, and consist in service of the US Army.Their official name - LCAC (Landing Craft Air Cushion), they are intended for the same purpose as the "Bison."The layout of the sample is different from the transatlantic architecture Soviet counterpart, such as the add-in is not available, but there is a fenced deck pontoon area of 182 square meters.m, which are placed and appliances with the contingent to be landing.LCAC is much more modest, "Bison" and the size and power of the power plant (16 thousand hp.).Its length is 27 meters, width - 14 m. Fuel consumption, however, rolls, one hour hundred gallons of fuel combusted.It weighs 170 tons ship. Glisserno it moves, the two screws with a diameter of 3 m 70 cm push it forward or backward.Maximum speed is about the same as that of the vessel of the "Zubr".Additional engines are used to steer.Lifting thrust is provided by four propellers pointing downwards.Payload weight - 70 tons.
an effort to facilitate the design, American engineers decided to do without superstructures and facilities for personnel, which creates the risk of being washed away over the side - deck at speed becomes slippery from the spray of water.
own armed watercraft are not allowed.
To summarize all the tactical and technical data of the American landing craft air cushion, it can be concluded that the combat capabilities of its inferior quality "Zubr" about three times.Marines on board he can take no more than 170 in the absence of military equipment on the deck.But this machine is worthy, but her compete with the Soviet model of development can not be no Western DKVP.
ship management types of San Antonio and WASP requires a very serious training, it is not easy to master.These ships are based in the US only at the naval base in Virginia.
How long "Zubr"?
For all the merits of this remarkable specimen of the Soviet defense industry can not but add to the glorious barrel of honey, which is undoubtedly worthy of its founders, and a spoonful of tar.At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in the Black Sea Fleet units including eight DKVP "Zubr".This brigade of amphibious ships was divided unequally, but as brothers: Russia got five (among them - the first prototype, it can not be considered), and Ukraine - three vessels ("Kramatorsk", "Artemivsk" and "Gorlovka").Indignant champions of universal justice is not necessary.Ukrainian Navy were not needed and those "Zubr" that he got to keep them turned out to be beyond the power of the military budget.Also in Feodosia were completed two more ships, one of which failed to complete.Again, it is fair to note that the Russian Navy also ordered their "Zubr" is not the best way.When Greece (the country - a member of NATO!) Expressed a desire to purchase unique warships, the Ukraine and Russia offered to buy a pair of pieces.The transaction took place.
Then the remaining three units were written off as useless from the Naval Forces of Ukraine, and is likely to cut into scrap metal, the demand for which is always there.
So, in the end the Greeks "Zubr" the most, as many as four.Russian Navy has two units, while in China - one unfinished at Ukrainian shipyards.By the way, in China it is planned construction of four additional copies.Ukrainian experts have provided assistance and technical documentation.
a consolation we can say that the combat use of "Zubr" during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict is unique and has been successful.Details of military operations with their participation the general public are not known.