Victor Vroom expectations theory states: the level of motivation of employees of a company to work depends on their perceptions of their own abilities to perform their tasks and achieve the objectives of reality.This American researcher has made an invaluable contribution to the development of motivation theory expectations.According to its tenets, the stimulating effect of producing not the needs of individuals, and the thinking process by which the assessment of the reality of achieving their goals and receive remuneration for it.
Calculation of the goal
Theory Vroom expectations include the assertion that the efforts made by the people who were directly dependent on the realization that it is really possible to achieve the desired.A classic example in many cases result in the following: training of university student passes the exam.Assume that this is the last test.In the previous examination scores are excellent, so if it will be put on the highest score, the student will charge an increased stipend during the subsequent semester.Thus the motivation of the individual affected by the following:
- confidence, the knowledge that you can really pass the exam as "excellent", like all previous ones;
- the desire to have more money.
According to the theory of expectations W. Vroom, a student would have no motivation to fair examination preparation in the absence of faith in himself and the desire to get high scholarship.
expectations theory Vroom is considering two types of assumptions of an individual associated with the efficiency of its activity:
- first type is associated with the following question: "Are efforts being made to provide a decent level of implementation of workers' jobs?" In order to meet the expectations of people musthave the appropriate skills, experience in similar or the same field as well as the necessary tools, equipment and facilities for the performance of the task.In the above example, a student waiting for the specified type are generally very high, if he is really convinced that careful preparation will help get a perfect score.If an individual believes that he does not have and the opportunities and capabilities for deep work with the material, it is a low probability will seek appreciation of their knowledge.
- The second type of expectations, as the theory of motivation Vroom, is this question: "Will the efficient operation to achieve the desired result?" For example, people want to have some benefit related to his employment.To get the desired reward, it should reach a certain level of execution of tasks.If the desire arose great, the individual will have a strong motivation to work hard.Conversely, confidence in the work from morning till night would not allow to benefit, the motivation will be minimal.
In addition, Victor Vroom pointed out that in direct relation to the degree of motivation is the attractiveness and value to the individual expected results.
expectations in most cases are seen as a particular individual assessment of the probability of occurrence of a certain event.Here is an example: the vast majority of students believe that at the end of higher education they will be able to find a decent job, and if it still work at full capacity, the promotion of the career ladder will not take long.
Many modern procedural doctrine of motivation theory expectations Vroom including considering the motivation as a process of self-selection control.It is argued that each individual is in a constant state of motivation.
boss a note
expectations theory states that to become a successful manager, is required to show staff that their efforts are properly directed at achieving the objectives of the organization, will lead to the early achievement of their goals.
according to this doctrine, the staff carried out the most productive activities, if they have confidence that their expectations are met in three ways:
- Attitude 'costs - the results "(" W - P ").This stage is the ratio between the input of work and the result of labor.
- «The result - a reward" ("R - B").Such a calculation aimed at determining remuneration or promotion as a result of the achieved level of results.
- The third factor determining motivation theory expectations, is the value of the consideration received or encouragement.
consider three more of the above directions.As to the first relationship - "costs - the result of" the theory of expectations Vroom gives the following explanation: when a person asks a question about the extent to which it can be expected that his own efforts will result in quantitative and qualitative results, which requires the head, the answer is bothtime and stored in the plane of this relationship, "Z - R".
second motivator "R - B" is activated when the employee fully appreciates the reality that he will be able to achieve this goal.In this case, there is a very specific question: "If I do a good job, get a reward, whether it will meet my expectations?".Uncertainty can arise when an employee has to rely on others in the process of distributing the promised rewards.In determining the level of confidence in a subordinate that a superior does bonuses, important are a number of factors.First, the trust is higher in the case where the authorities are not vague promises, but concrete.Second, the huge role played by the realization that the immediate supervisor is endowed with adequate powers to ensure that remuneration.
Theory Victor Vroom expectations include the postulate that even if employees are confident in their abilities and get the desired bonus, they have still one more question arises.It sounds like this: "If you give me the desired bonus if he would represent for me the value, if it will help me to meet basic needs?".According to this doctrine, the answer to this question lies in the method of measuring the value of the remuneration.
Value award as one of the main elements of the theory of expectations.However, unfortunately, it is taken into account, not all managers.The most frequent difficulties associated with the process of determining the value of the promotion, due to the fact that people do not always pay enough attention and time detailed assessment of their own needs.Moreover, since the funds do allow to buy a lot of benefits, subordinates are often in error, being assured that the money really is the best reward.Subsequently, these beliefs do not bring nothing but disappointment and dissatisfaction.People trying to get satisfaction from their work only in the form of money, often lack self-esteem and feel the lack of demand intelligence, abilities and skills.
to determine the overall needs of the individual, the satisfaction of which will cause its behavior Maslow uses the term "dominance".However, how the supervisor can determine the current at the moment for a particular slave reward?Here comes to the aid of the theory of expectations W. Vroom.The term "the valence" is used to establish the level of promoting certain preferences.As stated by Vroom, this concept reflects the measure of priority or value.The maximum positive valence of - 1.00, the minimum - -1.00.Although the concept seems rather vague, it allows people to make a comparison of their requests.Due to the general theoretical postulates, a model of motivation Vroom.It can be summarized as follows: the expectation of "cost-benefit" s expectation of a "results-reward" valence of x (the value of the remuneration) = motivation.
How to optimize the activity of employees?
- Provide a systematic comparison with the needs of the reward.
- To help the process of understanding the relationship between efforts, with the result, promotion and appreciation of the needs.Confidence subordinates will increase if they see that the manager pays great attention to this relationship.
- To identify the most effective incentives for each slave.
- demonstrate their own abilities to effective leadership and goals.
above was considered Vroom expectations theory, briefly describes the factors influencing the behavior of subordinates, and also disclosed some features of the behavior of a successful leader.