The indigenous peoples of Siberia.

According to researchers from different areas, the indigenous peoples of Siberia settled in this area in the late Paleolithic.It is that time is characterized by the development of hunting as the greatest fishery.

Today, most of the tribes and peoples of the region are few and their culture is on the verge of extinction.Next we will try to get acquainted with the geography of our homeland, the peoples of Siberia.Photos of Representatives, especially the language and farming will be presented in the article.

Analyzing these aspects of life, we try to show the diversity of people and may awaken readers interested in travel and excitement.


Almost the entire territory of Siberia represented Mongoloid type of person.Homeland it is considered Central Asia.After the start of the retreat of the glacier is people with such features have occupied the region.At the time, it had not yet been developed largely cattle, so the main occupation of the population was the hunt.

If you examine the map language groups of Siberia, we'll see that they are represented most of the Altai and Ural families.Tunguska, the Mongol and Turkic languages ​​on the one hand - and Finno-Samoyed other.

Socio-economic features

peoples of Siberia and the Far East to the development of the region is mainly Russian had a similar way of life.Firstly, it was distributed tribal relations.Traditions were kept in separate settlements, marriages tried not to spread beyond the tribe.

Classes were divided according to place of residence.If there was a major waterway, it is often met fishermen settled settlement, which originated from agriculture.The basic population was engaged solely in cattle breeding, for example, is very common were herding.

These animals breed convenient not only for meat, undemanding to food, but also because of their skins.They are very thin and warm, allowing nations such as, for example, Evenki, be good horsemen and warriors in comfortable clothes.

After coming to these territories firearms way of life has changed significantly.

spiritual sphere of life

ancient peoples of Siberia are still followers of shamanism.Although for many centuries, it has undergone various changes, but its strength is not lost.Buryats, for example, first added some rituals, and then completely switched to Buddhism.

Most other tribes were formally baptized since the eighteenth century.But this is all official data.If you take a ride through the villages and settlements, home to the small peoples of Siberia, we will see a completely different picture.Most adhere to centuries-old traditions of ancestors without innovation, and the rest combine their beliefs with one of the major religions.

especially those facets of life appear on national holidays, when there are different attributes beliefs.They intertwine and create a unique pattern of the authentic culture of a tribe.

Let's talk more details about what are the indigenous peoples of Siberia.


They call themselves unangany and their neighbors (Eskimos) - alakshak.The total number of barely twenty thousand people, most of whom live in the northern United States and Canada.

Researchers believe that the Aleuts were formed about five thousand years ago.However, their origin have two points of view.Some consider them a separate ethnic entity, the other - that they stood out from among the Eskimos.

Before these people met with the Orthodox Church, whose adherents they are today, Aleuts professed a mixture of shamanism and animism.The chief shaman costume was in the form of a bird, and the spirits of different elements and phenomena depicted wooden masks.

Today, they worship a single god, which in their language is called Agugum and represents full compliance with all the canons of Christianity.

on the territory of the Russian Federation, as we shall see below, presents many small peoples of Siberia, but they live in one settlement - the village of Nikolskoye.


Self-comes from the word "itenmen", which means "a person who lives here," a local, in other words.

can meet them on the territory of the West Kamchatka and Magadan region.Total population - a little more than three thousand people, according to the 2002 census.

In appearance they are closer to the Pacific type, but still have the obvious features of the northern Mongoloids.

Primal religion - animism and fetishism, primogenitor count the crows.Bury the dead at Itelmens adopted the manner of "air burial."The deceased is hung up in istlevaniya coffin is placed in a tree or on a special platform.This tradition can boast not only the peoples of Eastern Siberia, it was common in ancient times, even in the Caucasus and in North America.

most common fishing is fishing and hunting in the coastal mammals such as seals.Besides widespread gathering.


Not all the peoples of Siberia and the Far East are the aborigines, example of this can be Kamchadals.Actually, this is not an independent nation, but a mixture of Russian immigrants with the local tribes.

their Russian language with local dialects impurities.They are mostly common in Eastern Siberia.These include Kamchatka, Chukotka, Magadan region, the Sea of ​​Okhotsk.

Based on the census, the total number fluctuates within two and a half thousand people.

Actually, as such Kamchadals appeared only in the mid-eighteenth century.At this time the Russian settlers and traders strongly established contacts with local, some of them married a itelmenkami and representatives of Koryak and Chuvans.

Thus, the descendants of these tribal alliances and are now Kamchadals name.


If you start listing the peoples of Siberia, Koryak occupy last place in the list.They are known Russian researchers from the eighteenth century.

In fact, it is not a single nation, and several tribes.They call themselves namylan or chavchuven.Based on the census, today their number - about nine thousand people.

Kamchatka, Chukotka and Magadan region - territory of residence of representatives of these tribes.

If we make a classification on the basis of lifestyle, they are divided into coastal and tundra.

first - nymylany.They speak the language and are engaged Aliutor sea fishing - fishing and hunting for seals.These on culture and way of life close Kerek.This nation is peculiar sedentary life.

Second - chavchyv nomads (herders).They Koryak language.Living on Penzhina lip Taigonos and surrounding areas.

characteristic feature that distinguishes the Koryak, like some other peoples of Siberia are yaranga.This mobile cone-shaped dwellings made of animal skins.


If we talk about the indigenous peoples of Western Siberia, not to mention the Ural-Yukaghir language family.The most outstanding representatives of this group are Mansi.Self-

of the people - "mendsy" or "Voguls.""Muncie" in their language means "man."

This group was formed as a result of assimilation and the Ural Ugric tribes in the Neolithic period.The first were sedentary hunters, the second - the nomadic herdsmen.This duality of culture and farming still prevails.

very first contact with western neighbors were in the eleventh century.At this time, Mansi acquainted with Komi and Novgorod.After joining the Russian colonization policy strengthened.By the end of the seventeenth century, they are pushed to the northeast, and in the eighteenth formally adopt Christianity.

today in this nation, there are two phratry.The first is called the Port, its parent said the Bear, and constitute the basis of its Urals.The second is called Mos, its founder - woman Kaltashch, and the majority in this phratry belongs to the Ugric.
characteristic feature is that the cross is recognized only marriages between phratries.This tradition are only some of the indigenous peoples of Western Siberia.


In ancient times they were known as Golds and one of the most famous representatives of the people - Dersu Uzala.

According to census of just over twenty thousand.They live along the Amur in the Russian Federation and China.Language - Nanai.On the territory of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet used in China - unwritten language.

These peoples of Siberia have become known for Khabarov, who in the seventeenth century, explored the region.Some scientists believe their ancestors settled farmers duchers.But the majority are inclined to believe that the Nanai just came to these lands.

In 1860, thanks to the redistribution of boundaries along the Amur River, many of these people were in the overnight citizens of the two states.


enumerating the peoples of Western Siberia, it is impossible not to dwell on the Nenets.This word, like so many names of tribes of these territories, it means "man".According to data from the national census of the Taimyr Peninsula to the Kola their home to more than forty thousand people.Thus, it turns out that the Nenets - the largest of the indigenous peoples of Siberia.

They are divided into two groups.The first - the tundra, where the majority of the representatives of the second - forest (there is low).Dialects of these tribes are so different that one does not understand the other.

Like all the nations of Western Siberia, the Nenets are features of both Mongoloids and Caucasians.And the closer to the east, the less European features.

basis of the economy of this nation is a reindeer and a small extent fishing.The main dish - corned beef, but the kitchen is replete with raw meat of cows and deer.Because of vitamins contained in the blood from the Nenets are no scurvy, but rarely have such an exotic taste of the guests and tourists.


If you think about what people lived in Siberia, and to approach this issue from the perspective of anthropology, we see several ways of settlement.Some tribes came from Central Asia, the other - from the northern islands and Alaska.Only a small fraction of a local residents.

Chukchi luoravetlan or, as they call themselves, the type looks similar to Itelmens and Eskimos and have features like a Native American.It is tempting to think about their origin.With Russian

they met in the seventeenth century and a hundred years led a bloody war.As a result, they were pushed over the Kolyma.

important trading point was Anyui fortress, where he moved after the fall of the garrison Anadyr fortress.Fair in this stronghold had a turnover of hundreds of thousands of rubles.

Richer Group Chukchi - chauchu (herders) - were brought here to sell the skins.The second part of the population called ankalyn (breeders), they roamed the north of Chukotka and led a simple farming.


Self-this people - the Inuit, and the word "Eskimo" means "one who eats raw fish."So they called their neighbors tribes - the American Indians.

Researchers identify this people in a special "Arctic" race.They are adapted to living in the area and inhabited all the coast of the Arctic Ocean from Greenland to Chukotka.

According to the census in 2002, in the Russian Federation, their number only about two thousand people.The main part of the residence in the territory of Canada and Alaska.

Religion Inuit - animism and drums are sacred relic in every family.

For lovers of exotic will be interesting to learn about igunake.This is a special dish that is fatal to anyone who does not eat them since childhood.In fact, this rotting meat slain deer and walrus (seal), which held a few months under pressure from the gravel.

Thus, in this article we examined some of the peoples of Siberia.Acquainted with their real name, especially beliefs, farming and culture.