Anyone who studies the wave optics, sooner or later, certainly faced with reference to the experience of Jung.In this case it is really a landmark discovery, dramatically affect the further development of science.But about all in order.
ray of light in the darkness of doubt
us Visible light - is what surrounds every human being from birth.It is simple and complicated at the same time.There is nothing surprising in the fact that the constant attempts were made to explain what is light and what are its properties.Among the adherents of different models ignite serious debate, but no one could put an end to this matter.This has happened so far, has not yet been carried out an experiment Young, brilliantly confirmed the wave theory of light.
Previously it was believed that light is a stream of special particles - corpuscles.Later, in full compliance with the discoveries of physics, to replace corpuscles came photons.Photon - a particle with zero charge and mass, as well as existing only at the speed of light.At the same time, Newton still had an interesting experience to monitor the properties of light: It is located between a source and a glass plate and a concave lens.He watched not a point source, and the ring (later named after him).Since then, the experience Jung had not yet been delivered, Newton could not explain the observed from the point of view of the theory of light, composed of particles.
Finally, in 1803 T. Jung finally decided to confirm or deny the corpuscular hypothesis.He has prepared and performed a simple experiment that made scientists take a fresh look at familiar things.Jung Experience has shown that the light is an electromagnetic wave with certain characteristics.
was taken sheet of opaque material, it made two parallel positioned slit with a width corresponding to the wavelength emitted by the "verification" of light.At a distance from the sheet was placed screen that allows watching the "behavior" of the world.On a sheet of a light flux from a point source.Jung argued correctly: if the light is a stream of particles, it is displayed on the screen would be two parallel lines.The maximum intensity of the glow would come at the crash site of the two beams, and between them would be dark (opaque sheet).But if the theory of corpuscles was wrong, it is a light wave passing through the slit would create secondary waves (principle formulated in 1678 Huygens).Since their propagation does not interfere, then theoretically, they would reach the middle of the screen gaps between the projections, and the amplitude and phase of the waves coincide.Due to the interference (superposition), it could lead to the highest brightness light bar just between the projections of each slot, which would say that light - is one of the manifestations of wave disturbances.
As is now known, the corpuscular hypothesis fell, and its place was taken by the wave point of view.On the bands were observed at different light intensity.The most striking - in the middle, then dull, etc.The decrease is due to the glow opposite secondary interfering waves.
However, in our time, after a series of experiments, clarifying, the theory has been amended.According to them, it is assumed that light has a dual nature, and appearing as a wave and as a particle.The experimental results depend on their performances.The newest structure of the universe quantum theory is easily explained: observations obtained exactly as they want to see the experimenter.Duality is inherent not only light, but also such seemingly studied particle, like an electron.