answer to the question: "What is sphragistics?"This originated when in 1709 M. Geynektsy.Sphragistics - the science that studies the press.For Geynektsiem followed gave this science its present name Johann Gaiman and then Gatterer, Gerken, Ledebour, Hohenlohe-Waldenburg and others.Seyler belong to the best recent works on sphragistics.
development of the science of seals
sphragistics In the XVIII century began to take shape as a department Diplomatique.Its goals at the time was dating the document, as well as establishing its authenticity.In the future, the notion that such sphragistics, has been extended.The academic community in the late XIX century had introduced numerous print, lost communication with the document (Chaldean, Ancient, Old, Parthian, ancient Indian and others.).They were discovered during excavations.Since that time sphragistics - the science that studies, among other things, the history of development and formation of the ancient institutions of the state, based on the classification of the seals, which detects changes in his machine.In the Soviet Union there was a marked rise of this science.This was associated with a significant increase found during excavations in the Pskov and Novgorod materials.
In Russian literature, except for a special chapter in the book of Lakier "Russian heraldry", which describes the printing and provides an answer to the question of what sphragistics long time this science were only slight and fragmentary information.Janine has published in 1970 a two-volume study entitled "Documents on marital Print Ancient Rus."This scientist was the successor of NP Likhachev, who is considered the founder of the Soviet sphragistics.It Likhachev became a key figure in the study of the heritage of ancient Russia after Novgorod settlement was discovered in the early XX century.The science of seals today is not very active, but still evolving.There are new studies in this area.
Communication sphragistics to numismatics and heraldry
So, we learned that sphragistics - the science that studies the press.Let us now, with some branches of knowledge, it has the greatest relationship.This science is directly related to numismatics and heraldry.With the latest - that first drink only on seals multiple images are then passed into the arms.Printing using specific princes.They wore the emblem of inheritance in which they reigned.After some time, these posters were often in the arms.This happened, for example, Prince Golitsyn (emblem Duchy of Lithuania).
Sphragistics associated with numismatics that often coins were minted print of the Prince, who at the time of the rules.Unless the inscription on the coin at the logo on the press could find its origin.
In order to better understand what sphragistics, let us turn to history.It is an ancient custom of using seals.Already in ancient times, the Eastern peoples put seal impression.This custom was prevalent mainly in Babylon, Persepolis and Egypt.Seal of the time were hard colored stones, which were in the form of beetles, cylinders, and so on. D. They had suffered various signs.
In many places in the Bible can be found mention of the seals.For example, in the XXI Chapter III of the Kings, in the XIV chapter of the book of Daniel, in the XXXVIII Genesis.The custom of drinking from the eastern peoples borrowed the Romans and Greeks.The Romans used the usual print-rings.They did seal of applying it to various acts.Roman settled on the land the tribes have learned this practice, which nevertheless became widespread and common no earlier than the XII century.
value and use custom seals in antiquity
long time stamp replace the signature, so it was great value.Various precautions were used for the prevention of fraud.That is the purpose originally served as the science that studies the press.With great solemnity happened their attachment to the important acts.As the Germans and the Romans, it was the custom to put in the tomb with the deceased his seal-ring.They are sometimes worn around the neck guardians of the state and royal seals.
Types ancient seals
to VIII century, used mainly unilateral.However, after two centuries, they began to be displaced double, which stuck to the paper, parchment, or hung on the laces.There were printing lead (otherwise - Print-bull, got its name from the lead balls, which was beaten out the image), silver, gold (rare), bronze, wax, tin and wax.With the exception of wax and wax, they were hanging.In the western sphragistics such printing are called sigilla, or sigilla pendentia.They append to the bottom of the letters, immediately after the signature, on silk or linen or lace on a piece of leather or parchment.If there were a few seals during their placement followed the rank and position of the owner.
was very diverse print form: they were round (the oldest), oblong, oval, square, triangular, hexagonal, and others.
color value stamps
By the nature and dignity of the individual cases to distinguish colors of wax.Membership of the sovereign, as well as persons who have special privileges afforded the right to make red wax seal.Usually black wax printed his letters of the Patriarch of Constantinople.Azure or blue was considered in the XVI and XVII century the privilege.
Seals were depicted assigned owners logos, inscriptions in the form of regulations, manuals, images of faces owners.Symbols and emblems were especially diverse.Special public and the press have been found in every state.They are divided into three main types: small, medium and large.Large been designed for the most important documents, mostly international treatises and legislation.Small and medium used for less important documents and letters to the sovereigns.For personal use rulers in some states there are special kind of private press (in particular in the Netherlands and England).Guardian Seal the most part is the Ministry or the Minister of Justice and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Sweden, Württemberg, Bavaria and the Netherlands) and the Ministry of State (Prussia).
wearing a coat of arms is printed Pope.It is attached to the papal treatises and letters.There is also a special print from the State Secretary of the Pope.Storage Seal in Switzerland performed in the office of the Federal Council.
first Russian printing
first mention of the press in Russia are contracts Svyatoslav and Igor with the Greeks.The document 945, we learn that our ambassadors were to use the golden seal, and merchants (guests) - silver.Vladimir in 1006 gave a free trade agreement between the Bulgarian and Russian merchants.He gave them both and special printing as a sign of the prince's permission.They served as the title of the certificate of merchants.
press distribution in Russia
right to have belonged to the first printing only the Grand Duke.However fragmentation into fiefdoms Russia it spread as the feudal princes.Seal with the administrative development of our country has become a fixture of serving people of all kinds.Orders and cities also had them.A dual type were princely printing: personal, private (print-rings) and the public official.Following the example of the first-born boyars began to make printing at home.They were metal - silver, gold, lead and silver gilded;wax (yellow, black, red and dark brown);voskomastichnye that because of the greater strength replaced wax;Print resin or tar (very rare), and the wax that came into use at the end of the XVII century.Laces of different colors - hemp, silk and worsted - append metal printing.Others were applied for safekeeping sometimes camouflage paper.Because of this, they became known under the seals Custodio.
images on seals
most ancient princely printing extant - silver, gold, which on one side depicted the face of Christ, and on the other - hitting the serpent of the Archangel Michael.This seal priveshen to the charter of Mstislav Vladimirovich (Duke) and Vsevolod (his son).It dates back to 1125-1132 years.In addition to these images, the seals of the later princes meet Saint Nicholas, Alexander, Simeon, John the Baptist, and others., The image of the princes, the various logos, as well as an inscription that is the seal of a prince.Many ancient samples were found among seals XIV-XV centuries.Science sphragistics today engaged in their research.They appear to have been taken out of the Byzantium.These stamps depict mythological scenes.
of the city's most ancient seals extant - Novgorod attributable to 1426.She was attached to the contract literacy Novgorod and Tver Prince Boris Aleksandrovich.It depicts an animal with a horse's head, feet and back to the lion running with a raised tail.The rope is seen as the reins between his neck and head.On the back is an inscription that reads, "Print Novgorod."In Novgorod seals later portrayed Panther or Tiger, sitting on a chair female figure, two-headed eagle, bear and others.
Pskov historically follow Novgorod.The oldest of them belong to 1510.It depicts a leopard running with tail up, his tongue hanging out and outstretched claws.Print Around the inscription: "Print Gospodarstwa Pskov."Built in the XV and XVI centuries, the town received from the Government Printer.It is often supplements and modifies them.Different printing were used until 1702, and after - mainly two-headed eagle.
All these varieties of domestic sphragistics studies today.Appeal to history helps to identify patterns in this science.Russian sphragistics, in particular, helps to understand how to develop our country, which gives important information history.