Culture Russian lands in 12-13 centuries due to increased feudal fragmentation, weakening of Kiev.On the outskirts of the once great state develop small feudal principalities.This polycentrism contributes to several cultural centers, which are already significantly moved away from the influence of Kiev and developed its original direction.North of Russia was represented by Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod principalities, west - Galicia-Volyn.Arts, architecture, literature, science - these are the main trends that characterized the culture of the Russian lands 12-13 centuries.Briefly tell about these trends below.
Each of Russian principalities claim to a leading role in the cultural development.In imitation of the capital city of Kiev in each of them are built like cathedrals of St. Sophia, established the Golden Gate.Over time, there is a role model of a particular style, typical of the ancient architecture.Vladimir Assumption Cathedral, Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, Dmitrievsky Cathedral - the most famous architectural masterpieces, which is famous for the culture of the Russian lands 12-13 centuries.
first letter on birch bark were found in Novgorod in 1951.They date back to 11-12 century.Later, birch bark were found in Pskov, Vitebsk, Smolensk and Staraya Russa.Basically letters describe the social aspects of the life of people in those days.There are litigation, probate and administrative mandates, orders.Among the findings proved valuable letters describing learning in ancient Russia.As it became known, the overwhelming majority of Russian citizens from different social strata in that era knew how to read and write.Moreover, literacy trained not only men but also women.
books and translations
important place in the literature of the time was devoted to theological books.Culture of Russian lands in 12-13 centuries abounds of translators from all known languages.A huge number of theological treatises were translated into Russian.Over time, I began to translate and secular literature.Lives of great men and their covenants, and desire.At this time in various monasteries written records and chronicles.It has spread a new kind of literary work - "teaching."The most famous monuments of writing and come down to the present day: "Instructions Monomakh", "Lay."
Advancing scientific knowledge about man and the universe - one of the main areas that characterized the culture of the Russian lands in 12-13 centuries.Foreign manuscript explains the structure of the world and the universe, the diversity of flora and fauna, is actively translated and distributed.Of course, in those days, all natural phenomena are interpreted in religious terms, but the texts provide the necessary material for future research.
painting 12-13 century
Culture of Russian land is characterized by the emergence of Russian iconography.This religious direction in painting came to us from Byzantium, but later transformed into a purely Russian art direction.Strict asceticism of Byzantine icons little fit cheerful outlook of the eastern Slavs.The main subjects of Russian icons kept the Byzantine name.For example, the Byzantine remains the most common image of the Virgin, "Orans" - praying, "Odigidriya" - holding a baby in her arms, "Eleusa" - pressing the Child.Already allocated two main areas of iconography - Novgorod, which uses bright, saturated colors, and Kiev using more subtle shades and half-tones.
At the same time widespread application crafts - stone carving and wood.Stone carving adorned temples and palaces, and even wooden patterns encountered in everyday life: they were decorated with objects of everyday life and cooking utensils.
spite of feudal fragmentation, the culture of Russian lands in 12-13 centuries was at a high level.Its further development prevented the onset of Mongol troops in the Russian land and the establishment of the Tartar yoke.